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Over the past 20 years, a large body of research has documented a relationship between higher nurse-to-patient staffing ratios and better patient outcomes, including shorter hospital stays, lower rates of failure to prevent mortality after an in-hospital complication, inpatient mortality for multiple types of patients, hospital-acquired pneumonia, unplanned extubation, respiratory failure and cardiac arrest.1–5 In addition, patients report higher satisfaction when they are cared for in hospitals with higher staffing levels.6 7To date, most studies have not identified an ‘optimal’ nurse staffing ratio,8 which creates a challenge for determining appropriate mail order zithromax staffing levels. If increasing nurse staffing always produces at least some improvement in the quality of care, how does one determine what staffing level is best?. This decision is ultimately an mail order zithromax economic one, balancing the benefits of nurse staffing with the other options for which those resources could be used. It is in this context that hospitals develop staffing plans, generally based on historical patterns of patient acuity.Practical challenges of nurse staffingHospital staffing plans provide the structure necessary for determining hiring and scheduling, but fall short for a number of reasons. First, there are multiple ways in which patient acuity can be measured, which can have measurable effects on mail order zithromax the staffing levels resulting from acuity models.9 Second, patient volume and acuity can shift rapidly with changes in the volume of admissions, discharges and transfers between units.

Third, staffing plans provide little guidance regarding the optimal mix of permanent staff, variable staff and externally contracted staff.The paper by Saville and colleagues10 in this issue of BMJ Quality &. Safety addresses the latter two issues by applying a simulation model to identify the mail order zithromax optimal target for baseline nurse staffing in order to minimise periods of understaffing. Included in this model is consideration of the extent to which hospitals should leverage temporary personnel (typically obtained through an external agency) to fill gaps. The model acknowledges the likelihood that a hospital cannot realistically prevent all shifts from having a shortfall of nurses at all times, as well as the reality that hospital managers lack information about the best mail order zithromax balance between permanent and temporary staff. In addition, the analysis includes a calculation of the costs of each staffing approach, drawing from the records of 81 inpatient wards in four hospital organisations.The application of sophisticated simulation models and other advanced analyticl approaches to analysis of nurse staffing has been limited to date, and this paper is an exemplar of the value of such research.

Recent studies have used machine learning methods mail order zithromax to forecast hospital discharge volume,11 a discrete event simulation model to determine nursing staff needs in a neonatal intensive care unit,12 and a prediction model using machine learning and hierarchical linear regression to link variation in nurse staffing with patient outcomes.13 This new study applied a unique Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate demand for nursing care and test different strategies to meet demand.The results of the analysis are not surprising in that hospitals are much less likely to experience understaffed patient shifts if they aim to have higher baseline staffing. The data demonstrate a notable leftward skew, indicating that hospitals are more likely to have large unanticipated increases in patient volume and acuity than to have unanticipated decreases. This results in hospitals being more likely to have shifts that are understaffed than shifts that are overstaffed, which inevitably places pressure on hospitals to staff at a higher level and/or have access to mail order zithromax a larger pool of temporary nurses. It also is not surprising that hospitals will need to spend more money per patient day if they aim to reduce the percent of shifts that are understaffed. What is surprising about the results is that hospitals do not necessarily achieve cost savings by relying on temporary personnel versus setting regular staffing at a higher level.Trade-offs between permanent and temporary staffThe temporary nursing workforce enables healthcare facilities to maintain flexible yet full care teams based on patient care needs.

Hospitals can use temporary nurses to address staffing gaps mail order zithromax during leaves of absence, turnover or gaps between recruitment of permanent nurses, as well as during high-census periods. Temporary personnel are typically more expensive on an hourly basis than permanent staff. In addition, over-reliance on temporary staff can have detrimental effects on permanent nurses’ morale and mail order zithromax motivation. Orientations prior to shifts are often limited, which leads to a twofold concern as temporary nurses feel ill-prepared for shifts and permanent staff feel flustered when required to bring the temporary nurse up to speed while being expected to continue normal operations.14 Agency nurses may be assigned to patients and units that are incongruent with their experience and skills—either to unfamiliar units, which affects their ability to confidently deliver care, or to less complex patients where they feel as if their skills are not used adequately.14 15 These issues can create tension between temporary and permanent nursing staff, which can be compounded by the wage disparity. Permanent staff might feel demoralised and expendable when working alongside temporary staff who are not integrated into the social fabric of the staff.16Hospital managers also must be cognisant of the potential quality impact of relying heavily on temporary mail order zithromax nursing staff.

Research on the impact of contingent nursing employment on costs and quality have often found negative effects on quality, including mortality, and higher costs.17 18 However, other studies have found that the association between temporary nursing staff and low quality result from general shortages of nursing staff, which make a hospital more likely to employ temporary staff, and not directly from the contingent staff.19–21 Thus, temporary nurses play an important role in alleviating staffing shortages that would otherwise lead to lower quality of care.22Charting a path forward in hospital management and healthcare researchThe maturation of electronic health records and expansion of computerised healthcare management systems provide opportunities both for improved decision making about workforce deployment and for advanced workforce research. In the mail order zithromax area of workforce management, nursing and other leaders have a growing array of workforce planning tools available to them. Such tools are most effective when they display clear information about predicted patient needs and staff availability, but managers still must rely on their on-the-ground understanding of their staff and their context of patient care.23 Integration of human resources data with patient outcomes data has revealed that individual nurses and their characteristics have important discrete effects on the quality of care.24 25 Future development of workforce planning tools should translate this evidence to practice. In addition, new technology platforms are emerging to facilitate mail order zithromax direct matching between temporary healthcare personnel and healthcare organisations. One recent study tested a smartphone-based application that allowed for direct matching of locum tenens physicians with a hospital in the English National Health Service, finding that the platform generated benefits including greater transparency and lower cost.26 Similar technologies for registered nurses could facilitate better matching between hospital needs and temporary nurses’ preparedness to meet those needs.Analytical methods that fully leverage the large datasets compiled through electronic health records, human resources systems and other sources can be applied to advance research on the composition of nursing teams to improve quality of care.

As noted above, prior research has applied machine learning and mail order zithromax discrete event simulation to analyses of healthcare staffing. Other recent studies have leveraged natural language processing of nursing notes to identify fall risk factors27 and applied data mining of human resources records to understand the job titles held by nurses.28 Linking these rapidly advancing analytical approaches that assess the outcomes and costs of nurse staffing strategies, such as the work by Saville and colleagues published in this issue, to data on the impact of nurse staffing on the long-term costs of patient care will further advance the capacity of hospital leaders to design cost-effective policies for workforce deployment.Guidelines aim to align clinical care with best practice. However, simply publishing a guideline rarely triggers behavioural changes to match guideline recommendations.1–3 We thus transform guideline recommendations into actionable tasks by introducing interventions that promote behavioural changes meant to produce guideline-concordant care. Unfortunately, not much has changed in the 25 years since Oxman and colleagues concluded that we have no ‘magic bullets’ when it comes to changing clinician behaviour.4 In fact, far from magic bullets, interventions aimed at increasing the degree to which patients receive care recommended in guidelines (eg, educational interventions, reminders, audit and feedback, financial incentives, computerised decision support) typically produce disappointingly small improvements in care.5–10Much improvement work aims to mail order zithromax ‘make the right thing to do the easy thing to do.’ Yet, design solutions which hardwire the desired actions remain few and far between. Further, improvement interventions which ‘softwire’ such actions—not guaranteeing that they occur, but at least increasing the likelihood that clinicians will deliver the care recommended in guidelines—mostly produce small improvements.5–9 Until this situation changes, we need to acknowledge the persistent reality that guidelines themselves represent a main strategy for promoting care consistent with current evidence, which means their design should promote the desired actions.11 12In this respect, guidelines constitute a type of clinical decision support.

And, like mail order zithromax all decision support interventions, guidelines require. (1) user testing to assess if the content is understood as intended and (2) empirical testing to assess if the decision support provided by the guideline does in fact promote the desired behaviours. While the processes for developing guidelines have received substantial attention over the mail order zithromax years,13–18 surprisingly little attention has been paid to empirically answering basic questions about the finished product. Do users understand guidelines as intended?. And, mail order zithromax what version of a given guideline engenders the desired behaviours by clinicians?.

In this issue of BMJ Quality and Safety, Jones et al19 address this gap by using simulation to compare the frequency of medication errors when clinicians administer an intravenous medication using an existing guideline in the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) versus a revised and user-tested version of the guideline that more clearly promotes the desired actions. Their findings demonstrate that changes mail order zithromax to guideline design (through addition of actionable decision supports) based on user feedback does in fact trigger changes in behaviour that can improve safety. This is an exciting use of simulation, which we believe should encourage further studies in this vein.Ensuring end users understand and use guidelines as intendedJones and colleagues’ approach affords an opportunity to reflect on the benefits of user testing and simulation of guidelines. The design and evaluation of their revised guidelines provides an mail order zithromax excellent example of a careful stepwise progression in the development and evaluation of a guideline as a type of decision support for clinicians. First, in a prior study,20 they user tested the original NHS guidelines to improve retrieval and comprehension of information.

The authors produced a revised guideline, which included reformatted sections as well as increased support for key calculations, such as for infusion rates. The authors again user tested mail order zithromax the revised guideline, successfully showing higher rates of comprehension. Note that user testing refers to a specific approach focused on comprehension rather than behaviour21 and is distinct from usability testing. Second, in the current study, Jones et al evaluated whether nurse and midwife end users exhibited the mail order zithromax desired behavioural changes when given the revised guidelines (with addition of actionable decision supports), compared with a control group working with the current version of the guidelines used in practice. As a result, Jones and colleagues verify that end users (1) understand the content in the guideline and (2) actually change their behaviour in response to using it.Simulation can play a particularly useful role in this context, as it can help identify problems with users’ comprehension of the guideline and also empirically assess what behavioural changes occur in response to design changes in the guidelines.

The level of methodological control and qualitative detail that simulation provides is difficult to feasibly replicate with real-world pilot studies, and mail order zithromax therefore simulation fills a critical gap.Jones et al report successful changes in behaviour due to the revised guidelines in which they added actionable decision supports. For example, their earlier user testing found that participants using the initial guidelines did not account for displacement volume when reconstituting the powdered drug, leading to dosing errors. A second error with the initial guidelines involved participants using the shortest infusion rate provided (eg, guidelines state ‘1 to 3 hours’), without realising that the shortest rate is not appropriate for certain doses (eg, 1 hour mail order zithromax is appropriate for smaller doses, but larger doses should not be infused over 1 hour because the drug would then be administered faster than the maximum allowable infusion rate of 3 mg/kg/hour). These two issues were addressed in the revised guidelines by providing key determinants for ‘action’ such as calculation formulas that account for displacement volume and infusion duration, thereby more carefully guiding end users to avoid these dose and rate errors. These changes to the guideline triggered specific behaviours (eg, calculations that account for all variables) that did not mail order zithromax occur with the initial guidelines.

Therefore, the simulation testing demonstrated the value of providing determinants for action, such as specific calculation formulas to support end users, by showing a clear reduction in dose and rate errors when using the revised guidelines compared with the initial guidelines.The authors also report that other types of medication-specific errors remained unaffected by the revised guidelines (eg, incorrect technique and flush errors)—the changes made did not facilitate the desired actions. The initial guidelines indicate ‘DO NOT SHAKE’ in capital letters, and there is a section specific to mail order zithromax ‘Flushing’. In contrast, the revised guidelines do not capitalise the warning about shaking the vial, but embed the warning with a numbered sequence in the medication preparation section, aiming to increase the likelihood of reading it at the appropriate time. The revised guidelines do not have a section specific to flushing, but embed the flushing instructions as an unnumbered step in the administration section. Thus, the value of embedding technique and flushing information within the context of use was not validated in the simulation mail order zithromax testing (ie, no significant differences in the rates of these errors), highlighting precisely the pivotal role that simulation can play in assessing whether attempts to improve usability result in actual behavioural changes.Finally, simulation can identify potential unintended consequences of a guideline.

For instance, Jones and colleagues observed an increase in errors (although not statistically significant) that were not medication specific (eg, non-aseptic technique such as hand washing, swabbing vials with an alcohol wipe). Given that the revised guidelines were specific to the medication tested, it is unusual that we mail order zithromax see a tendency toward a worsening effect on generic medication preparation skills. Again, this finding was not significant, but we highlight this to remind ourselves of the very real possibility that some interventions might introduce new and unexpected errors in response to changing workflow and practice6. Simulations offer an opportunity to spot these risks in advance.Now that Jones et al have seen how the revised guidelines change behaviour, they mail order zithromax are optimally positioned to move forward. On one hand, they have the option of revising the guidelines further in attempts to address these resistant errors, and on the other, they can consider designing other interventions to be implemented in parallel with their user-tested guidance.

At first glance, the errors mail order zithromax that were resistant to change appear to be mechanical tasks that end users might think of as applying uniformly to multiple medications (eg, flush errors, non-aseptic technique). Therefore, a second intervention that has a more general scope (rather than drug specific) might be pursued. Regardless of what they decide to pursue, we applaud their measured approach and highlight that the key takeaway is that their next steps are supported with clearer evidence of what to expect when the guidelines are released—certainly a helpful piece of information to guide decisions as to whether broad implementation of guidelines is justified.Caveats and conclusionSimulation is not a panacea—it is not able to assess longitudinal adherence, and there are mail order zithromax limitations to how realistically clinicians behave when observed for a few sample procedures when under the scrutiny of observers. Further, studies where interventions are implemented to assess whether they move the needle on the outcomes we care about (eg, adverse events, length of stay, patient mortality) are needed and should continue. However, having end users physically perform clinical tasks with the intervention in representative environments represents an important strategy to assess the degree to which guidelines and other decision support interventions in fact promote the desired behaviours and to mail order zithromax spot problems in advance of implementation.

Such simulation testing is not currently a routine step in intervention design. We hope it becomes a more common phenomenon, with more improvement work following the example of the approach so effectively demonstrated by Jones and colleagues..

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Restrictions for religious gatherings and gyms will be eased under relaxed buy antibiotics safety how much is zithromax without insurance rules view it now announced today. From Friday how much is zithromax without insurance 23 October. Religious gatherings/places of worship (excluding weddings and funerals) can have up to 300 people, subject to a buy antibiotics safety plan gyms will only be required to have a buy antibiotics safety marshal if there are more than 20 people in the gym at one time.Treasurer Dominic Perrottet said as the NSW Government eases restrictions the community should continue to be buy antibiotics Safe.“Our aim is to provide as many opportunities as we can for organisations and the community to carry on with their work and lives as much as possible,” Mr Perrottet said.“We want to keep moving forward but for that strategy to be successful we need everyone to follow the buy antibiotics Safety Plans.”Minister for Health Brad Hazzard thanked religious leaders and the community for their ongoing support of the efforts to control buy antibiotics. €œThe impact of buy antibiotics is being felt right across the community but the further easing of restrictions to allow 300 people at religious gatherings is another cautious step towards a ‘buy antibiotics-normal’ life,” Mr Hazzard said.“buy antibiotics is still lurking amongst how much is zithromax without insurance us so I urge all leaders to continue encouraging everyone at their religious gatherings and places of worship to comply with the health advice to keep themselves and others safe.”Religious gatherings exclude weddings and funerals.

However, from 1 December, how much is zithromax without insurance the number of people who can attend weddings will be lifted to 300 people subject to the four square metre rule indoors and two square metre rule outdoors. People attending a religious service will be required to provide their name and contact details when they enter so they can be used for contact tracing. They are also being urged to wear a mask when attending places of worship.NSW Health Chief Health Officer Dr Kerry Chant said NSW Health continues to work closely with the gym sector to develop further guidance to ensure every measure is taken to keep people safe when they visit the gym.“People can help stop the spread of buy antibiotics in gyms by visiting at less busy times, practising good hand hygiene before, during and after how much is zithromax without insurance workouts, maintaining physical distancing especially when working out, and wiping down equipment with detergent and disinfectant each time it is used,” Dr Chant said. Each gym facility is required to have a buy antibiotics Safe plan.NSW Health is providing a $1 million boost to a new cancer and wellness centre in Echuca to help deliver chemotherapy and dialysis to cross-border communities.The Echuca Cancer and Wellness Centre will be part of Echuca Regional Health, which services about 44,000 people in Murray River Council and the shires of Hay, Deniliquin, Moama, Balranald in NSW, and Campaspe Shire how much is zithromax without insurance in Victoria.

Health Minister Brad Hazzard said the NSW Government invests millions of dollars in services and infrastructure across the state to ensure regional communities can access the best health care possible.“Echuca, on the Victorian side of the border, and Moama, on the NSW side, are in a similar situation to Albury-Wodonga. These border towns identify as single communities, with residents crossing the border daily to access services,” Mr Hazzard said.“This new centre will provide patients in cross-border communities with world-class, critical cancer services and treatments right on their doorstep.”Echuca Regional Health Chief how much is zithromax without insurance Executive Nick Bush thanked the NSW Government for its $1 million commitment. €œWe appreciate the support of the NSW Government of the Echuca-Moama how much is zithromax without insurance and surrounding community. It is very exciting to see the project progressing.

The purpose-built how much is zithromax without insurance facility will give patients the best care in a wonderful, new centre in our community.”NSW and Victoria have a long-standing agreement for cross-border health care. In 2020/2021, NSW will reimburse about $63 million to Victoria, on top of the $120 million how much is zithromax without insurance NSW Health provides to Albury-Wodonga Health for NSW residents.Planning is underway for the centre, which will provide access to haematologists, medical oncologists, nephrologists and radiation oncologists for more than 1,200 patients each year. Murrumbidgee Local Health District provides a cancer diagnosis service at Deniliquin Hospital, and there are plans to recruit and train staff in oncology.​.

Restrictions for religious gatherings and gyms Renova for saleseroquel price cvs will be eased under relaxed buy antibiotics mail order zithromax safety rules announced today. From Friday 23 mail order zithromax October. Religious gatherings/places of worship (excluding weddings and funerals) can have up to 300 people, subject to a buy antibiotics safety plan gyms will only be required to have a buy antibiotics safety marshal if there are more than 20 people in the gym at one time.Treasurer Dominic Perrottet said as the NSW Government eases restrictions the community should continue to be buy antibiotics Safe.“Our aim is to provide as many opportunities as we can for organisations and the community to carry on with their work and lives as much as possible,” Mr Perrottet said.“We want to keep moving forward but for that strategy to be successful we need everyone to follow the buy antibiotics Safety Plans.”Minister for Health Brad Hazzard thanked religious leaders and the community for their ongoing support of the efforts to control buy antibiotics. €œThe impact of buy antibiotics is being felt right across the community but the further easing of restrictions to allow 300 people at religious gatherings is another cautious step towards a ‘buy antibiotics-normal’ life,” Mr Hazzard said.“buy antibiotics is still lurking amongst us so I urge all leaders to continue mail order zithromax encouraging everyone at their religious gatherings and places of worship to comply with the health advice to keep themselves and others safe.”Religious gatherings exclude weddings and funerals.

However, from 1 December, the number of people who can attend weddings will be lifted to 300 people subject to the four square metre rule indoors and mail order zithromax two square metre rule outdoors. People attending a religious service will be required to provide their name and contact details when they enter so they can be used for contact tracing. They are also being urged to wear mail order zithromax a mask when attending places of worship.NSW Health Chief Health Officer Dr Kerry Chant said NSW Health continues to work closely with the gym sector to develop further guidance to ensure every measure is taken to keep people safe when they visit the gym.“People can help stop the spread of buy antibiotics in gyms by visiting at less busy times, practising good hand hygiene before, during and after workouts, maintaining physical distancing especially when working out, and wiping down equipment with detergent and disinfectant each time it is used,” Dr Chant said. Each gym facility is required to have a buy antibiotics Safe plan.NSW Health is providing a $1 million boost to a new cancer and wellness centre in Echuca to mail order zithromax help deliver chemotherapy and dialysis to cross-border communities.The Echuca Cancer and Wellness Centre will be part of Echuca Regional Health, which services about 44,000 people in Murray River Council and the shires of Hay, Deniliquin, Moama, Balranald in NSW, and Campaspe Shire in Victoria.

Health Minister Brad Hazzard said the NSW Government invests millions of dollars in services and infrastructure across the state to ensure regional communities can access the best health care possible.“Echuca, on the Victorian side of the border, and Moama, on the NSW side, are in a similar situation to Albury-Wodonga. These border towns identify as single communities, with residents crossing the border daily to access services,” Mr Hazzard said.“This new centre will provide patients in mail order zithromax cross-border communities with world-class, critical cancer services and treatments right on their doorstep.”Echuca Regional Health Chief Executive Nick Bush thanked the NSW Government for its $1 million commitment. €œWe appreciate the mail order zithromax support of the NSW Government of the Echuca-Moama and surrounding community. It is very exciting to see the project progressing.

The purpose-built facility will give mail order zithromax patients the best care in a wonderful, new centre in our community.”NSW and Victoria have a long-standing agreement for cross-border health care. In 2020/2021, NSW will reimburse about $63 million to Victoria, on top of the $120 million NSW Health provides to Albury-Wodonga Health for NSW residents.Planning is underway for mail order zithromax the centre, which will provide access to haematologists, medical oncologists, nephrologists and radiation oncologists for more than 1,200 patients each year. Murrumbidgee Local Health District provides a cancer diagnosis service at Deniliquin Hospital, and there are plans to recruit and train staff in oncology.​.

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Straining under record numbers of buy antibiotics patients, hundreds of the nation's intensive care units are running out of space and supplies and competing to hire http://aliciawardcello.com/cheap-generic-zithromax/ temporary how to take zithromax traveling nurses at soaring rates. Many of the facilities are clustered in the how to take zithromax South and West.An Associated Press analysis of federal hospital data shows that since November, the share of U.S. Hospitals nearing the breaking point has doubled. More than 40% of Americans now live in areas running out of ICU space, with only 15% of beds still available.Intensive care units are the final defense for the sickest of the sick, how to take zithromax patients who are nearly suffocating or facing organ failure.

Nurses who work in the most stressed ICUs, changing IV bags and monitoring patients on breathing machines, are exhausted."You can't push great people forever. Right?. I mean, it just isn't possible," said Houston Methodist CEO Dr. Marc Boom, who is among many hospital leaders hoping that the numbers of critically ill buy antibiotics patients have begun to plateau.

Worryingly, there's an average of 20,000 new cases a day in Texas, which has the third-highest death count in the country and more than 13,000 people hospitalized with buy antibiotics-related symptoms.According to data through Thursday from the buy antibiotics Tracking Project, hospitalizations are still high in the West and the South, with over 80,000 current buy antibiotics hospital patients in those regions. Encouragingly, hospitalizations appear to have either plateaued or are trending downward across all regions. It's unclear whether the easing will continue with more contagious versions of the zithromax arising and snags in the rollout of treatments.In New Mexico, one surging hospital system brought in 300 temporary nurses from outside the state, at a cost of millions of dollars, to deal with overflowing ICU patients, who were treated in converted procedure rooms and surgery suites."It's been horrid," said Dr. Jason Mitchell, chief medical officer for Presbyterian Healthcare Services in Albuquerque.

He's comforted that the hospital never activated its plan for rationing lifesaving care, which would have required a triage team to rank patients with numerical scores based on who was least likely to survive."It's a relief that we never had to actually do it," Mitchell said. "It sounds scary because it is scary."In Los Angeles, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center ran into shortages of take-home oxygen tanks, which meant some patients who could otherwise go home were kept longer, taking up needed beds. But the biggest problem is competing with other hospitals for traveling nurses."Initially, when the buy antibiotics surges were hitting one part of the country at a time, traveling nurses were able to go to areas more severely affected. Now with almost the entire country surging at the same time," hospitals are paying twice and three times what they would normally pay for temporary, traveling nurses, said Dr.

Jeff Smith, the hospital's chief operating officer.Houston Methodist Hospital recently paid $8,000 retention bonuses to keep staff nurses from signing up with agencies that would send them to other hot spots. Pay for traveling nurses can reach $6,000 per week, an enticement that can benefit a nurse but can seem like poaching to the hospital executives who watch nurses leave."There's a lot of these agencies that are out there charging absolutely ridiculous sums of money to get ICU nurses in," Boom said. "They go to California, which is in the midst of a surge, but they poach some ICU nurses there, send them to Texas, where they charge inordinate amounts to fill in gaps in Texas, many of which are created because nurses in Texas went to Florida or back to California."Space is another problem. Augusta University Medical Center in Augusta, Georgia, is treating adult ICU patients, under age 30, in the children's hospital.

Recovery rooms now have ICU patients, and, if things get worse, other areas — operating rooms and endoscopy centers — will be the next areas converted for critical care.To prevent rural hospitals from sending more patients to Augusta, the hospital is using telemedicine to help manage those patients for as long as possible in their local hospitals."It is a model I believe will not only survive the zithromax but will flourish post zithromax," said Dr. Phillip Coule, the Augusta hospital's chief medical officer.Hospitals are pleading with their communities to wear masks and limit gatherings."There just hasn't been a lot of respect for the illness, which is disappointing," said Dr. William Smith, chief medical officer for Cullman Regional Medical Center in Cullman, Alabama. He sees that changing now with more people personally knowing someone who has died."It has taken a lot of people," he said of the zithromax, adding that the death toll — 144 people in six months in a county of 84,000 — "has opened their eyes to the randomness of this."The Alabama hospital's ICU has been overflowing for six weeks, with 16 zithromax patients on ventilators in a hospital that a year ago had only 10 of the breathing machines.

"You can see the stress in people's faces and in their body language. It's just a lot for people to carry around," Smith said."Just the fatigue of our staff can affect quality of care. I've been encouraged we've been able to keep the quality of care high," Smith said. "You feel like you are in a very precarious situation where errors could occur, but thankfully we've managed to stay on top of things."Hospitals say they are upholding high standards for patient care, but experts say surges compromise many normal medical practices.

Overwhelmed hospitals might be forced to mobilize makeshift ICUs and staff them with personnel without any experience in critical care. They might run out of sedatives, antibiotics, IVs or other supplies they rely on to keep patients calm and comfortable while on ventilators."It's really daunting and mentally taxing. You're doing what you believe to be best practice," said Kiersten Henry, a nurse at MedStar Montgomery Medical Center in Olney, Maryland, and a board director for the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.In Oklahoma City, OU Medicine Chief Medical Officer Dr. Cameron Mantor said while the treatments hold promise, hope still seems dim as ICU cases keep mounting.

The number of buy antibiotics hospitalizations at OU Medicine has declined from more than 100 daily in recent weeks to 98 on Wednesday, Mantor said."What is stressing everybody out," Mantor said, "is looking at week after week after week, the spigot is not being turned off, not knowing there is a break, not seeing the proverbial light at the end of the tunnel.".

Straining under record numbers of buy antibiotics patients, hundreds of the nation's intensive Clicking Here care units are running out of mail order zithromax space and supplies and competing to hire temporary traveling nurses at soaring rates. Many of the facilities are clustered in the South and West.An Associated Press analysis of federal hospital data shows that since November, the mail order zithromax share of U.S. Hospitals nearing the breaking point has doubled.

More than 40% of Americans now live in areas running out of ICU space, with only 15% of beds still available.Intensive care units are the final defense for mail order zithromax the sickest of the sick, patients who are nearly suffocating or facing organ failure. Nurses who work in the most stressed ICUs, changing IV bags and monitoring patients on breathing machines, are exhausted."You can't push great people forever. Right?.

I mean, it just isn't possible," said Houston Methodist CEO Dr. Marc Boom, who is among many hospital leaders hoping that the numbers of critically ill buy antibiotics patients have begun to plateau. Worryingly, there's an average of 20,000 new cases a day in Texas, which has the third-highest death count in the country and more than 13,000 people hospitalized with buy antibiotics-related symptoms.According to data through Thursday from the buy antibiotics Tracking Project, hospitalizations are still high in the West and the South, with over 80,000 current buy antibiotics hospital patients in those regions.

Encouragingly, hospitalizations appear to have either plateaued or are trending downward across all regions. It's unclear whether the easing will continue with more contagious versions of the zithromax arising and snags in the rollout of treatments.In New Mexico, one surging hospital system brought in 300 temporary nurses from outside the state, at a cost of millions of dollars, to deal with overflowing ICU patients, who were treated in converted procedure rooms and surgery suites."It's been horrid," said Dr. Jason Mitchell, chief medical officer for Presbyterian Healthcare Services in Albuquerque.

He's comforted that the hospital never activated its plan for rationing lifesaving care, which would have required a triage team to rank patients with numerical scores based on who was least likely to survive."It's a relief that we never had to actually do it," Mitchell said. "It sounds scary because it is scary."In Los Angeles, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center ran into shortages of take-home oxygen tanks, which meant some patients who could otherwise go home were kept longer, taking up needed beds. But the biggest problem is competing with other hospitals for traveling nurses."Initially, when the buy antibiotics surges were hitting one part of the country at a time, traveling nurses were able to go to areas more severely affected.

Now with almost the entire country surging at the same time," hospitals are paying twice and three times what they would normally pay for temporary, traveling nurses, said Dr. Jeff Smith, the hospital's chief operating officer.Houston Methodist Hospital recently paid $8,000 retention bonuses to keep staff nurses from signing up with agencies that would send them to other hot spots. Pay for traveling nurses can reach $6,000 per week, an enticement that can benefit a nurse but can seem like poaching to the hospital executives who watch nurses leave."There's a lot of these agencies that are out there charging absolutely ridiculous sums of money to get ICU nurses in," Boom said.

"They go to California, which is in the midst of a surge, but they poach some ICU nurses there, send them to Texas, where they charge inordinate amounts to fill in gaps in Texas, many of which are created because nurses in Texas went to Florida or back to California."Space is another problem. Augusta University Medical Center in Augusta, Georgia, is treating adult ICU patients, under age 30, in the children's hospital. Recovery rooms now have ICU patients, and, if things get worse, other areas — operating rooms and endoscopy centers — will be the next areas converted for critical care.To prevent rural hospitals from sending more patients to Augusta, the hospital is using telemedicine to help manage those patients for as long as possible in their local hospitals."It is a model I believe will not only survive the zithromax but will flourish post zithromax," said Dr.

Phillip Coule, the Augusta hospital's chief medical officer.Hospitals are pleading with their communities to wear masks and limit gatherings."There just hasn't been a lot of respect for the illness, which is disappointing," said Dr. William Smith, chief medical officer for Cullman Regional Medical Center in Cullman, Alabama. He sees that changing now with more people personally knowing someone who has died."It has taken a lot of people," he said of the zithromax, adding that the death toll — 144 people in six months in a county of 84,000 — "has opened their eyes to the randomness of this."The Alabama hospital's ICU has been overflowing for six weeks, with 16 zithromax patients on ventilators in a hospital that a year ago had only 10 of the breathing machines.

"You can see the stress in people's faces and in their body language. It's just a lot for people to carry around," Smith said."Just the fatigue of our staff can affect quality of care. I've been encouraged we've been able to keep the quality of care high," Smith said.

"You feel like you are in a very precarious situation where errors could occur, but thankfully we've managed to stay on top of things."Hospitals say they are upholding high standards for patient care, but experts say surges compromise many normal medical practices. Overwhelmed hospitals might be forced to mobilize makeshift ICUs and staff them with personnel without any experience in critical care. They might run out of sedatives, antibiotics, IVs or other supplies they rely on to keep patients calm and comfortable while on ventilators."It's really daunting and mentally taxing.

You're doing what you believe to be best practice," said Kiersten Henry, a nurse at MedStar Montgomery Medical Center in Olney, Maryland, and a board director for the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.In Oklahoma City, OU Medicine Chief Medical Officer Dr. Cameron Mantor said while the treatments hold promise, hope still seems dim as ICU cases keep mounting. The number of buy antibiotics hospitalizations at OU Medicine has declined from more than 100 daily in recent weeks to 98 on Wednesday, Mantor said."What is stressing everybody out," Mantor said, "is looking at week after week after week, the spigot is not being turned off, not knowing there is a break, not seeing the proverbial light at the end of the tunnel.".

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NCHS Data Brief No zithromax price. 286, September 2017PDF Versionpdf icon (374 KB)Anjel Vahratian, Ph.D.Key findingsData from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015Among those aged 40–59, perimenopausal women (56.0%) were more likely than postmenopausal (40.5%) and premenopausal (32.5%) women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 to have trouble falling asleep (27.1% compared with 16.8%, respectively), and staying asleep (35.9% compared with 23.7%), four times or more in the past week.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 (55.1%) were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 (47.0%) to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.Sleep duration and quality are important contributors to health and wellness. Insufficient sleep zithromax price is associated with an increased risk for chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (1) and diabetes (2). Women may be particularly vulnerable to sleep problems during times of reproductive hormonal change, such as after the menopausal transition. Menopause is “the zithromax price permanent cessation of menstruation that occurs after the loss of ovarian activity” (3).

This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. The age range selected for this analysis reflects the focus on midlife sleep health. In this analysis, 74.2% of women are premenopausal, 3.7% are perimenopausal, and zithromax price 22.1% are postmenopausal. Keywords. Insufficient sleep, menopause, National Health Interview Survey Perimenopausal women were more zithromax price likely than premenopausal and postmenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.More than one in three nonpregnant women aged 40–59 slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (35.1%) (Figure 1).

Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (56.0%), compared with 32.5% of premenopausal and 40.5% of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period. Figure 1 zithromax price. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant quadratic trend by menopausal status zithromax price (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual zithromax price cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 1pdf icon.SOURCE zithromax price.

NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in five nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble falling asleep four times or more in zithromax price the past week (19.4%) (Figure 2). The percentage of women in this age group who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 16.8% among premenopausal women to 24.7% among perimenopausal and 27.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week. Figure 2 zithromax price.

Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image zithromax price icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were zithromax price perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 2pdf icon.SOURCE zithromax price. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.More than one in four nonpregnant zithromax price women aged 40–59 had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week (26.7%) (Figure 3). The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 23.7% among premenopausal, to 30.8% among perimenopausal, and to 35.9% among postmenopausal women.

Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week. Figure 3 zithromax price. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p < zithromax price. 0.05).NOTES.

Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if zithromax price they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure zithromax price 3pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in two nonpregnant women aged 40–59 did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week (48.9%) (Figure 4). The percentage of women in this age group who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week increased from 47.0% among zithromax price premenopausal women to 49.9% among perimenopausal and 55.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week. Figure 4 zithromax price. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week, by menopausal status.

United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <. 0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle.

Access data table for Figure 4pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015. SummaryThis report describes sleep duration and sleep quality among U.S. Nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

In contrast, postmenopausal women were most likely to have poor-quality sleep. A greater percentage of postmenopausal women had frequent trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and not waking well rested compared with premenopausal women. The percentage of perimenopausal women with poor-quality sleep was between the percentages for the other two groups in all three categories. Sleep duration changes with advancing age (4), but sleep duration and quality are also influenced by concurrent changes in women’s reproductive hormone levels (5). Because sleep is critical for optimal health and well-being (6), the findings in this report highlight areas for further research and targeted health promotion.

DefinitionsMenopausal status. A three-level categorical variable was created from a series of questions that asked women. 1) “How old were you when your periods or menstrual cycles started?. €. 2) “Do you still have periods or menstrual cycles?.

€. 3) “When did you have your last period or menstrual cycle?. €. And 4) “Have you ever had both ovaries removed, either as part of a hysterectomy or as one or more separate surgeries?. € Women were postmenopausal if they a) had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or b) were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries.

Women were perimenopausal if they a) no longer had a menstrual cycle and b) their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Premenopausal women still had a menstrual cycle.Not waking feeling well rested. Determined by respondents who answered 3 days or less on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, on how many days did you wake up feeling well rested?. €Short sleep duration. Determined by respondents who answered 6 hours or less on the questionnaire item asking, “On average, how many hours of sleep do you get in a 24-hour period?.

€Trouble falling asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble falling asleep?. €Trouble staying asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble staying asleep?. € Data source and methodsData from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis.

NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews are conducted in person in respondents’ homes, but follow-ups to complete interviews may be conducted over the telephone. Data for this analysis came from the Sample Adult core and cancer supplement sections of the 2015 NHIS. For more information about NHIS, including the questionnaire, visit the NHIS website.All analyses used weights to produce national estimates. Estimates on sleep duration and quality in this report are nationally representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized nonpregnant female population aged 40–59 living in households across the United States.

The sample design is described in more detail elsewhere (7). Point estimates and their estimated variances were calculated using SUDAAN software (8) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS. Linear and quadratic trend tests of the estimated proportions across menopausal status were tested in SUDAAN via PROC DESCRIPT using the POLY option. Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. About the authorAnjel Vahratian is with the National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics.

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Lindsey Black in the preparation of this report. ReferencesFord ES. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults. J Am Heart Assoc 3(6):e001454. 2014.Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Li C, Perry GS, Croft JB.

Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes. J Diabetes 6(4):338–50. 2014.American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141.

Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 123(1):202–16. 2014.Black LI, Nugent CN, Adams PF. Tables of adult health behaviors, sleep. National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014pdf icon.

2016.Santoro N. Perimenopause. From research to practice. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) 25(4):332–9. 2016.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al.

Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult. A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. J Clin Sleep Med 11(6):591–2. 2015.Parsons VL, Moriarity C, Jonas K, et al. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2015.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(165). 2014.RTI International. SUDAAN (Release 11.0.0) [computer software]. 2012.

Suggested citationVahratian A. Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286. Hyattsville, MD. National Center for Health Statistics.

2017.Copyright informationAll material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated.National Center for Health StatisticsCharles J. Rothwell, M.S., M.B.A., DirectorJennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for ScienceDivision of Health Interview StatisticsMarcie L. Cynamon, DirectorStephen J.

Blumberg, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science.

NCHS Data Brief mail order zithromax No http://mtvernontree.com/tab-lasix-40mg-price-in-canada/. 286, September 2017PDF Versionpdf icon (374 KB)Anjel Vahratian, Ph.D.Key findingsData from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015Among those aged 40–59, perimenopausal women (56.0%) were more likely than postmenopausal (40.5%) and premenopausal (32.5%) women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 to have trouble falling asleep (27.1% compared with 16.8%, respectively), and staying asleep (35.9% compared with 23.7%), four times or more in the past week.Postmenopausal women aged 40–59 (55.1%) were more likely than premenopausal women aged 40–59 (47.0%) to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.Sleep duration and quality are important contributors to health and wellness. Insufficient sleep is associated with an increased risk for chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (1) mail order zithromax and diabetes (2).

Women may be particularly vulnerable to sleep problems during times of reproductive hormonal change, such as after the menopausal transition. Menopause is “the permanent cessation of menstruation that mail order zithromax occurs after the loss of ovarian activity” (3). This data brief describes sleep duration and sleep quality among nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status.

The age range selected for this analysis reflects the focus on midlife sleep health. In this analysis, 74.2% of women are premenopausal, 3.7% are perimenopausal, and mail order zithromax 22.1% are postmenopausal. Keywords.

Insufficient sleep, menopause, National Health Interview Survey Perimenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal and postmenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.More than one in three nonpregnant women aged 40–59 slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (35.1%) mail order zithromax (Figure 1). Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period (56.0%), compared with 32.5% of premenopausal and 40.5% of postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period.

Figure 1 mail order zithromax. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who slept less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant quadratic trend by menopausal status (p < mail order zithromax.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 mail order zithromax year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data mail order zithromax table for Figure 1pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in five nonpregnant women aged 40–59 had trouble falling mail order zithromax asleep four times or more in the past week (19.4%) (Figure 2). The percentage of women in this age group who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 16.8% among premenopausal women to 24.7% among perimenopausal and 27.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week.

Figure 2 mail order zithromax. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble falling asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status mail order zithromax (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year mail order zithromax ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for mail order zithromax Figure 2pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.More than one in four nonpregnant women mail order zithromax aged 40–59 had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week (26.7%) (Figure 3). The percentage of women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week increased from 23.7% among premenopausal, to 30.8% among perimenopausal, and to 35.9% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to have trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week.

Figure 3 mail order zithromax. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who had trouble staying asleep four times or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image mail order zithromax icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and mail order zithromax their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for mail order zithromax Figure 3pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

The percentage of women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week varied by menopausal status.Nearly one in two nonpregnant women aged 40–59 did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week (48.9%) (Figure 4). The percentage of women in this age group who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week increased from mail order zithromax 47.0% among premenopausal women to 49.9% among perimenopausal and 55.1% among postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women were significantly more likely than premenopausal women to not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week.

Figure 4 mail order zithromax. Percentage of nonpregnant women aged 40–59 who did not wake up feeling well rested 4 days or more in the past week, by menopausal status. United States, 2015image icon1Significant linear trend by menopausal status (p <.

0.05).NOTES. Women were postmenopausal if they had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries. Women were perimenopausal if they no longer had a menstrual cycle and their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less.

Women were premenopausal if they still had a menstrual cycle. Access data table for Figure 4pdf icon.SOURCE. NCHS, National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

SummaryThis report describes sleep duration and sleep quality among U.S. Nonpregnant women aged 40–59 by menopausal status. Perimenopausal women were most likely to sleep less than 7 hours, on average, in a 24-hour period compared with premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

In contrast, postmenopausal women were most likely to have poor-quality sleep. A greater percentage of postmenopausal women had frequent trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and not waking well rested compared with premenopausal women. The percentage of perimenopausal women with poor-quality sleep was between the percentages for the other two groups in all three categories.

Sleep duration changes with advancing age (4), but sleep duration and quality are also influenced by concurrent changes in women’s reproductive hormone levels (5). Because sleep is critical for optimal health and well-being (6), the findings in this report highlight areas for further research and targeted health promotion. DefinitionsMenopausal status.

A three-level categorical variable was created from a series of questions that asked women. 1) “How old were you when your periods or menstrual cycles started?. €.

2) “Do you still have periods or menstrual cycles?. €. 3) “When did you have your last period or menstrual cycle?.

€. And 4) “Have you ever had both ovaries removed, either as part of a hysterectomy or as one or more separate surgeries?. € Women were postmenopausal if they a) had gone without a menstrual cycle for more than 1 year or b) were in surgical menopause after the removal of their ovaries.

Women were perimenopausal if they a) no longer had a menstrual cycle and b) their last menstrual cycle was 1 year ago or less. Premenopausal women still had a menstrual cycle.Not waking feeling well rested. Determined by respondents who answered 3 days or less on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, on how many days did you wake up feeling well rested?.

€Short sleep duration. Determined by respondents who answered 6 hours or less on the questionnaire item asking, “On average, how many hours of sleep do you get in a 24-hour period?. €Trouble falling asleep.

Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble falling asleep?. €Trouble staying asleep. Determined by respondents who answered four times or more on the questionnaire item asking, “In the past week, how many times did you have trouble staying asleep?.

€ Data source and methodsData from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used for this analysis. NHIS is a multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year by the National Center for Health Statistics. Interviews are conducted in person in respondents’ homes, but follow-ups to complete interviews may be conducted over the telephone.

Data for this analysis came from the Sample Adult core and cancer supplement sections of the 2015 NHIS. For more information about NHIS, including the questionnaire, visit the NHIS website.All analyses used weights to produce national estimates. Estimates on sleep duration and quality in this report are nationally representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized nonpregnant female population aged 40–59 living in households across the United States.

The sample design is described in more detail elsewhere (7). Point estimates and their estimated variances were calculated using SUDAAN software (8) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS. Linear and quadratic trend tests of the estimated proportions across menopausal status were tested in SUDAAN via PROC DESCRIPT using the POLY option.

Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level. About the authorAnjel Vahratian is with the National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Lindsey Black in the preparation of this report.

ReferencesFord ES. Habitual sleep duration and predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk using the pooled cohort risk equations among US adults. J Am Heart Assoc 3(6):e001454.

2014.Ford ES, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Li C, Perry GS, Croft JB. Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes. J Diabetes 6(4):338–50.

2014.American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141.

Management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 123(1):202–16. 2014.Black LI, Nugent CN, Adams PF.

Tables of adult health behaviors, sleep. National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014pdf icon. 2016.Santoro N.

Perimenopause. From research to practice. J Women’s Health (Larchmt) 25(4):332–9.

2016.Watson NF, Badr MS, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult. A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society.

J Clin Sleep Med 11(6):591–2. 2015.Parsons VL, Moriarity C, Jonas K, et al. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 2006–2015.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(165). 2014.RTI International.

SUDAAN (Release 11.0.0) [computer software]. 2012. Suggested citationVahratian A.

Sleep duration and quality among women aged 40–59, by menopausal status. NCHS data brief, no 286. Hyattsville, MD.

National Center for Health Statistics. 2017.Copyright informationAll material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated.National Center for Health StatisticsCharles J.

Rothwell, M.S., M.B.A., DirectorJennifer H. Madans, Ph.D., Associate Director for ScienceDivision of Health Interview StatisticsMarcie L. Cynamon, DirectorStephen J.

Blumberg, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science.